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[1] Henningfield, J.E., & Benowitz, N.L. (1995).  Cigarettes and addiction.  British Medical Journal, 310, 1082-1083.

[2] http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-tobac.htm

[3] Benowitz, N.L.  (1996).  Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction and therapeutics. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 36, 597-613.

[4] Committee on Passive Smoking, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council. (1986). Environmental tobacco smoke: Measuring exposures and assessing health effects. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

[5] Pedreira, FA, Guandolo, VL, & Feroli, EJ. (1985). Involuntary smoking and incidence of respiratory illness during the first year of life. Pediatrics. 75, 594-595.

[6] Guyatt, GH, & Newhouse, MT. (1985). Are active and passive smoking harmful? Determining causation. Chest, 88, 445-451.

[7] Mannino, DM, Klevens, RM, & Flander, WD. (1994). Cigarette smoking: An independent risk factor for impotence. American Journal of Epidemiology, 140, 1003-1008.

[8] Burke, KE. (1990). Facial wrinkles: Prevention and nonsurgical correction. Postgraduate Medicine, 88, 207-208.

[9] Ernster, VL, Grady, D, et al. (1995). Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 78-82.

[10] Grady, D, & Ernster, V. (1992) Does cigarette smoking make you ugly and old? American Journal of Epidemiology, 135, 839-842.

[11] Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M, Heath, Jr., C. (1994). Mortality from developed countries 1950-2000: Indirect estimates from national vital statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 211.

[12] American Lung Association.  (1994).  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: emphysema, chronic bronchitis.  Lung Disease Data, 1994, 6-7.

[13] Newcomb, PA, & Carbone, PP.  (1992).  The health consequences of smoking: cancer.  Medical Clinics of North America, 76, 305-331.

[14] Brinton, L.A. (1990).  Editorial commentary: smoking and cervical cancer - current status.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 958-960.

[15] Reus, WF, Robson, MC, Zachary, L, & Heggers, JP. Acute effects of tobacco smoking on blood flow in the cutaneous micro-circulation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 37, 213-215.

[16] Herrero, R, Brinton, LA, Reeves, WC, et al. (1989).  Invasive cervical cancer and smoking in Latin America.  Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 81, 205-211.

[17] Barton, SE, Jenkins, D, Cuzick, J, et al. (1988).  Effect of cigarette smoking on cervical epithelial immunity: a mechanism for neoplastic change?  Lancet, 2, 652-654.

[18] Robbins, A., Manson, J., Lee, M., et al. (1994).  Cigarette smoking and stroke in a cohort of U.S. male physicians.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 120, 458-462.

[19] Kawachi, I., Colditz, G., Stampfer, M., et al. (1993).  Smoking cessation and decreased risk of stroke in women.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 232-236.

[20] Christen, W.G., Manson, J.E., et al. (1992).  A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of cataract in men.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 989-993.

[21] Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C., et al. (1992).  A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of cataract surgery in women.  JAMA, 268, 994-998.

[22] LaVecchia, C.L., Negri, E., Levi, F., & Baron, J.A. (1991).  Cigarette smoking, body mass, and other risk factors for fractures of the hip in women.  International Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 671-677.

[23] Hopper, J.L., & Seeman, E. (1994).  The bone density of female twins discordant for tobacco use.  New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 387-392.

[24] Slemenda, C.W., Christian, J.C., Reed, T., et al. (1992).  Long-term bone loss in men: effects of genetic and environmental factors.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 117, 286-291.

[25] Blair, S., Perkins, K.A., Metz, K.F., et al. (1985).  Relationships between exercise or physical activity and other health behaviors.  Public Health Reports, 100, 172-180.

[26] Boshuizen, H.C., Verbeek, JHAM, Broersen, JPJ, & Weel, ANH.  Do smokers get more back pain?  Spine, 18, 35-40.

[27] Ernst, E.  (1993).  Smoking, a cause of back trouble?  British Journal of Rheumatology, 32, 239-242.

[28] American Lung Association. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? Site accessed 11/1/01. http://www.lungusa.org/tobacco/quit_ben.jtmll.

[29] Kendler KS, Neale MC, MacLean CJ, Heath AC, Eaves LJ, & Kessler RC. (1993). Smoking and major depression: A causal analysis.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 36-43.

[30] Borrelli B, Niaura R, Keuthen NJ, Goldstein MG, DePue JD, Murphy C, Abrams DB. (1996) Development of major depressive disorder during smoking-cessation treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,  57(11), 534-8.

[31] Klesges, R.C., Winders, S.E., et al. (1997).  How much weight gain occurs following smoking cessation? A comparison of weight gain using both continuous and point prevalence abstinence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(2), 286-291.

[32] Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, et al. (1999).  The efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women: a randomized controlled trial.  Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 1229-1234.

[33] National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  Alcohol Alerts.  No. 39: Alcohol and Tobacco.  Site accessed 11/1/01.  http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa39.jtml

[34] Giovino, GA, Henningfield, JE, et al. (1995). Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence. Epidemiology Review, 17, 48-65.

[35] Perkins, K.A. (2001). Smoking cessation in women. Special considerations.  CNS Drugs, 15, 391-411.

[36] Baird, D.D., & Wilcox, A.J. (1985).  Cigarette smoking associated with delayed conception.  JAMA, 253, 2979 – 2983.

[37] ACOG Technical Bulletin Number 180 - May 1990.  International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 43, 75-81.

[38] DiFranza, J.R., & Lew, R.A. (1995).  Effect of maternal cigarette smoking on pregnancy complications and sudden infant death syndrome.  Journal of Family Practice, 40, 385-394.

[39] Dempsey, D.A., & Benowitz, N.L. (2001).  Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy.  Drug Safety, 24(4), 277-322.

[40] Baron, J.A., LaVecchia, C., & Levi, F.  (1990).  The antiestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking in women.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 162, 502-514.

[41] Tobacco Cessation Guideline: Guideline Panel Members. June 2000. U.S. Public Health Service. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/smpanel.jtml

[42] http://www.ftc.gov/reports/tobacco/

[43] Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. June 2000. U.S. Public Health Service. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/

[44] American Psychiatric Association.  (1996). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with nicotine dependence.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1-31.

[45] Curry S, Marlatt G.A., & Gordon J.R. (1987). Abstinence violation effect: validation of an attributional construct with smoking cessation.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 145-149.

[46] National Institute of Drug Abuse.  Research Report Series: Nicotine Addiction.  Site accessed 11/1/01.

[47] Benson, H. (2000).  The relaxation response.  Wholecare.

[48] Coppotelli H.C., & Orleans C.T. (1985).  Partner support and other determinants of smoking cessation maintenance among women.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 455-460.

[49] Mermelstein, R., Cohen, S., Lichtenstein, E., Baer, J.S., & Kamarck, T. (1986). Social support and smoking cessation and maintenance.   Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 447-453.

[50] Ellis, A. (2001).  Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors : New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.  Prometheus: New York.

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